O que são Interfaces Homem-Máquina e por que elas estão se tornando mais importantes?

À medida que a Internet das Coisas cresce, a maneira como interagimos com os dispositivos mudará – causando uma modernização das interfaces que as controlam.

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A tecnologia de engenharia está vivendo no mundo da interconectividade. A Internet das Coisas (IoT) é uma tendência dominante, com produtos industriais e de consumo sendo conectados via internet. Para operar esses dispositivos, as interfaces homem-máquina (HMIs) estão se tornando mais sofisticadas. Conversamos com quatro especialistas no mundo da HMI para nos ajudar a explicar o básico.

Chirayu Shah, Rockwell Automation, líder de programas comerciais para o software HMI
Lisa Bettes, Rockwell Automation, gerente de produto para interface eletrônica do operador
Reid Beilke, Beckhoff Automation, especialista em produtos para PCs industriais
Alan Cone, Siemens, SIMATIC WinCC gerente de marketing

O que define a tecnologia HMI (Interface Homem-Máquina)?

Beilke: HMI, em seus termos mais simples, inclui qualquer dispositivo ou software que permite que você interaja com uma máquina. Isso pode ser tão simples e onipresente quanto o monitor de toque único tradicional montado em uma máquina ou tão tecnologicamente avançado como um painel de controle multi-touch-enabled ou mesmo tecnologia móvel conectada, como smartphones e smartwatches.

Shah: A IHM é considerada uma interface que permite aos seres humanos interagir com a máquina. Exemplos de aspectos físicos de HMI podem ser uma máquina com touch display, um botão de pressão, um dispositivo móvel ou um computador com um teclado.

Como a HMI melhora os sistemas atuais?

Beilke: Do ponto de vista industrial, o aspecto mais valioso da tecnologia HMI é a capacidade de acompanhar de perto a produção e responder a demandas de produção em mudança, o que melhora a eficiência e diminui o tempo de inatividade. Esses benefícios são resultado de diagnósticos e monitoramento aprimorados.

Bettes: Uma solução HMI adequadamente projetada não só melhora a produtividade para o operador, mas também fornece a linha de visão no sistema para controlar ou manter a máquina. Alarming é um ótimo exemplo de uma função HMI que fornece indicadores visuais do problema de uma máquina e sua gravidade.

Como a HMI se relaciona com a tecnologia Internet das Coisas (IoT)?

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Shah: As soluções HMI tradicionais eram terminais isolados isolados que foram implantados por um OEM como parte de uma máquina. Novas soluções HMI são pré-configuradas para enviar dados para a nuvem ou uma solução on-premise. O IoT está mudando fábricas. Mais clientes esperam que as HMIs industriais funcionem como seus telefones celulares na forma como interagem com eles. Isso está levando a uma grande mudança na percepção de uma IHM industrial e como ela deve funcionar.

Beilke: IoT representa um aumento dramático no número de pontos de dados em uma máquina e fábrica com conectividade vertical alcançando em todo o número de dispositivos de campo. Com tecnologias como a Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture integrada em controles de máquina baseados em PC, é possível transmitir com segurança dados criptografados da máquina para a nuvem e para sistemas de nível empresarial. A capacidade de enviar dados para a nuvem também permite que os engenheiros integrem dispositivos como smartphones ou tablets, por exemplo, para monitorar remotamente a máquina e os dados de fabricação ou simplesmente levar a IHM a qualquer lugar.

Cone: Como IoT permeia o chão de fábrica, HMI tecnologia desempenha um papel importante na conexão de pessoas e dispositivos. Por essa razão, é imperativo que as HMIs ofereçam opções de visualização intuitivas e sejam facilmente conectadas em rede com outros componentes no chão de fábrica. As HMIs devem ser móveis e oferecer visibilidade em operações em áreas de difícil acesso. Comissionamento inovador e conceitos de serviço – incluindo diagnósticos do sistema – devem ser construídos.

Quais são os requisitos de sistema para HMI?

Bettes: As soluções HMI podem ser uma base de terminal autônoma ou distribuídas de forma justa para aplicações maiores. Este último pode envolver hardware de nível de servidor, um sistema operacional de servidor Microsoft e múltiplos nós para carregar o equilíbrio entre os requisitos do aplicativo.

Beilke: Requisitos para este tipo de sistema variam dependendo da aplicação, mas a tela geralmente implementa algum tipo de funcionalidade de toque, pois isso torna o HMI muito mais user-friendly; As funções do toque-tipo são geralmente muito familiares aos usuários. Pense em quantas vezes você utiliza operações com dois dedos em seu smartphone ou tablet. Este tipo de funcionalidade é cada vez mais esperado na interface da máquina; As experiências de eletrônicos de consumo acabam por temperar as expectativas da indústria eletrônica.

Qual é a curva de aprendizado para usar a IHM?

Beilke: Devido à aceitação geral de dispositivos inteligentes, como smartphone, tablet ou smartwatch, a curva de aprendizado é muito baixa para os usuários. Funcionalidade multi-touch é a segunda natureza para a maioria das pessoas hoje.

Onde você pode implementar HMI?

Beilke: HMI é implementado em qualquer indústria onde a intervenção humana com uma máquina ou dispositivo automatizado é necessário. Isto poderia ser em uma máquina, planta, edifício, ou mesmo um veículo. O nível de integração e sofisticação pode variar, mas a HMI pode ser adicionada a praticamente qualquer tipo de aplicativo.

Bettes: A HMI é amplamente utilizada na fabricação – desde a indústria automotiva até as indústrias farmacêuticas e alimentares altamente reguladas. As indústrias de processos usam fortemente as HMIs, como petróleo e gás, e operações de mineração nas quais muitos processos são gerenciados remotamente a partir de uma sala de controle.

A ascensão da Industry 4.0 e da Industrial Internet of Things tornou isso ainda mais fácil, já que podemos transformar nossos smartphones em uma forma de HMI móvel e tecnologia como smartwatches tornou a HMI acessível, aumentando a acessibilidade e facilidade de uso.

FONTE: Machinedesign

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